Introduction

Have a look at your backyard or the trees on your street or in your nearby park. You will notice that there are a variety of plants around us. Some plants have flowers, some don’t. Some plants are tall while some are small. The stems of some plants are thick and strong while for others it is thin and soft. We’ll learn about what are the parts and types of plants here.

Plants are those living things which are responsible for the life on the earth. They give out oxygen which is needed for respiration of all the beings on the earth. There are numerous ways in which the plants help the human beings and other animals on the earth. They give food. They give shelter. They give wood which is used for various purposes. They are also used as medicines.

Different Parts of the Plant

A plant has different parts which are as follows:

Plants

Root: It is the part of the plant which grows underground. The basic function of the roots is to support the plant. The plant is anchored on the soil by the roots. The roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil which are needed for the growth of the plant. Sometimes food is also stored in the roots in the form of carrot, radish.

Stem: This part of the plant is above the ground. It conducts the water and nutrients from roots, and food from leaves to other parts of the plants. It also acts as a support of the plant. It bears braches, leaves, flowers and fruits.

Leaf: The leaves are responsible for making the food of the plants. The green leaves capture the sunlight and prepare the food by the process of photosynthesis. The oxygen we breathe in is also given out by the leaves during the photosynthesis. They are also known as the kitchen of the house.

Flower: It is the reproductive part in most of the plants. It not only adds beauty to the plant but it is also responsible for producing seeds. After pollination and fertilization the flowers gets converted into fruits.

Fruits: They are formed after the flower gets fertilized. They provide a covering to the seed. It can be fleshy as apple or hard like nut.

Bud: It is undeveloped shoot from which leaves or flower grows.

Types of Plants

Not all the plants we see around us are same. There are a variety of plants available on earth. These plants vary in height, size of stem, color, roots and in many other ways. Some major types are shown here:

  1. Climber Plants: There are some plants which have very weak and soft stem. Their stem cannot support the growth of the plant, and the plant has to take some external support like, building or pole to stand straight. For example, pea plant, money plant etc.
  2. Creeper Plants: They also have a weak stem. They grow along the ground. For example, watermelon, pumpkin etc.
  3. Herbs: The herbs are plants with small stems. They are mostly used for medicinal purposes. Some of the herbs are also used as food. For example: spinach, mint etc.
  4. Shrubs: Shrubs usually have multiple branches and thin brown stem. Their height can vary up to 6m. Some examples are rose, cotton
  5. Aquatic Plants: There are plants which live in water. They have their stems and roots under water. Some examples are lotus, hydrilla, duckweed etc.

How do plants make food?

All the animals on the earth are dependent on the plants for their food either directly or indirectly. But plants also need energy. How do they get energy?

The green plants prepare their own food by the process of photosynthesis. The photosynthesis is the process which uses sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar which provides energy to the plant. Only green plants can make food, this is so because the process of photosynthesis can take place only in green plants which have chloroplast present in them. The oxygen is given out during this process.

The process of photosynthesis cannot take place everywhere, it has certain requirements. The requirements are:

  1. ]Chlorophyll: The chlorophyll is present in the chloroplasts which are present in the green leaves. They capture the sunlight and make food for the plants.
  2. Sunlight: Without sunlight the plants cannot prepare their food. The whole process of photosynthesis takes place in the presence of sunlight because energy is needed to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar.
  3. Water: It is among the raw materials needed for the preparation of the food by the leaf. It is collected by the root of the plant.
  4. Carbon Dioxide: The carbon dioxide is one of the raw materials needed for making of the food of the plant. It is absorbed by the pores in the plant from the atmosphere.
  5. Soil: The soil gives nutrients and minerals which are needed during the process of photosynthesis.